Edge effects on Diptera distribution in deciduous forests of the centre of European Russia


  • Mikhail N. Esin Joint Directorate of the Mordovia State Nature Reserve and National Park “Smolny”, Rus-sia
  • Alexander B. Ruchin Joint Directorate of the Mordovia State Nature Reserve and National Park “Smolny”, Rus-sia



insects, below, above, forest interior


 Studies were conducted in the temperate forests of the European part of Russia (territory of the Republic of Mordovia). Beer traps with bait made of beer and sugar were used for the studies. Three plots were selected for the study, which differed in the composition of plants at the edges, adjacent open ecosystems and types of forest ecosystems. The forest was adjacent to this open ecosystem and there was no transition zone of shrubs. Eight traps were used in each plot (1,2 - edge-below, 3,4 - edge-above, 5,6 - forest interior-below, 7,8 - forest interior-above). They were located 1.5 m (further named as “below” traps) and 7.5 m (further named as “above” traps) from the ground level. During the experiments, 52306 specimens from 28 families of Diptera were captured. In terms of total abundance, representatives of 25 families were present in the lower traps and species from 27 families were present in the upper traps. The general pattern was the highest abundance of Diptera at the edges in all plots. Nine families (Tipulidae, Anisopodidae, Lonchaeidae, Milichiidae, Drosophilidae, Anthomyiidae, Fanniidae, Muscidae, Calliphoridae) accounted for 93.3% of all Diptera abundance in all plots. The families Tipulidae, and Drosophilidae were the most abundant in lower traps within forest ecosystems. The families Lonchaeidae, Milichiidae, Anthomyiidae, Fanniidae, and Muscidae were most abundant in upper traps at the edges of forests. The families Anisopodidae, Calliphoridae were the most abundant in the lower down edges.


Allgood D.W., Miller D.A., Kalcounis-Rueppell M.C., 2009, Influence of Intensive Pine Management on Dipteran Community Structure in Coastal North Carolina, Environ-mental Entomology, 38(3): 657–666,

Azevedo, P., Lopes, G., Fonteles, R., Vasconcelos, G., Moraes, J., & Rebêlo, J. (2011). The effect of fragmentation on phlebotomine communities (Diptera: Psychodidae) in areas of ombrophilous forest in São Luís, state of Maranhão, Brazil. Neotropical Entomolo-gy, 40(2), 271–277.

Ball S.G., Morris R.K.A 2004. A mark-release-recapture study of Volucella bombylans (Linnaeus), V. inflata (Fabricius) and V. pellucens (Linnaeus) (Diptera, Syrphidae). Dipterists Digesr l0: 73-83.

Barkeley, E. P. 2009. Insect communities and multicohort stand structure in boreal mixed-wood forests of northeastern Ontario. Unpublished M.S. Thesis, University of Toronto, Faculty of Forestry. 125 pp.

Bernhard, M.E.R.Z. (2004). Revision of the Minettia fasciata species-group (Diptera, Lauxaniidae). Revue suisse de Zoologie, 111(1), 183-211.

Bogyó D, Magura T, Nagy DD, Tóthmérész B. Distribution of millipedes (Myriapoda, Dip-lopoda) along a forest interior - forest edge - grassland habitat complex. Zookeys. 2015 510: 181-195. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.510.8657

Bolshakov L, Ruchin A, Semishin G, Anikin V, Piskunov V, Matov A, Semenov A, Artaev O (2021) Occurrence of butterflies and moths (Insecta, Lepidoptera) in Mordovia State Nature Reserve. Biodiversity Data Journal 9: e69813.

Buras, A., Rammig, A., Zang, C. S. (2020). Quantifying impacts of the 2018 drought on European ecosystems in comparison to 2003. Biogeosciences, 17(6), 1655-1672.

Costa, L.N.P., Novais, S., Oki, Y., Fernandes, G.W. & Borges, M.A.Z. (2023) Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) diversity along a rainy season and edge effects in a riparian forest in Southeastern Brazil. Austral Ecology, 48, 41–55. Available from:

Courtney, G.W., Pape, T., Skevington, J.H., Sinclair, B.J. (2017). Biodiversity of Diptera. In Insect Biodiversity (eds R.G. Foottit and P.H. Adler).

Dangerfield J.M., Pik A.J., Britton D., Holmes A., Gillings M., Oliver I., Briscoe D., Beat-tie A.J. Patterns of invertebrate biodiversity across a natural edge. Austral Ecol. (2003) 28(3): 227-236.

Dantur J.M.J., Almiron W.R., Claps G.L. (2010). Population fluctuation of Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) in forest and forest edge habitats in Tucumán province, Argenti-na. Journal of Vector Ecology, 35(1), 28-34.

de Jong, H., Oosterbroek, P., Gelhaus, J., Reusch, H., Young, C. (2007). Global diversity of craneflies (Insecta, Diptera: Tipulidea or Tipulidae sensu lato) in freshwater. In: Balian, E.V., Lé-vêque, C., Segers, H., Martens, K. (eds) Freshwater Animal Diversity Assessment. Developments in Hydrobiology, vol. 198. Springer, Dordrecht.

de Souza Amorim, D., Brown, B.V., Boscolo, D. et al. (2022) Vertical stratification of in-sect abundance and species richness in an Amazonian tropical forest. Sci Rep 12, 1734.

Deans A.M., Malcolm J.R., Smith S.M., Bellocq M.I., 2005. Edge effects and the responses of aerial insect assemblages to structural-retention harvesting in Canadian boreal peat-land forests. Forest Ecology and Management, 204: 249-266.

Dedyukhin S.V. 2023. Fauna and biotopic distribution of Chrysomelidae (Coleoptera) in the Zhiguli State Nature Reserve, Russia. Nature Conservation Research 8(3): 61–74.

Didham, R.K., Lawton, J.H. 1999. Edge structure determines the magnitude of changes in microclimate and vegetation structure in tropical forest fragments. Biotropica 31: 17–30.

Dvořák L., Dvořáková K., Oboňa J., Ruchin A.B. 2022. Some Diptera families from beer traps in the Volga region (Russia). Caucasian Entomological Bulletin. 18(1): 130–138.

Dvořák L., Ruchin A.B., Egorov L.V., Aleksanov V.V., Alekseev S.K., Shulaev N.V., Zakh-arova E.Yu. 2023. Distribution of species from the genus Panorpa (Mecoptera, Panor-pidae) in European Russia except the Caucasus. Nature Conservation Research. Vol. 8(1). P. 24–33.

Dvořáková, K. (2008). Heleomyzidae and Lauxaniidae (Diptera, Brachycera, Acalyptrata) trapped in the Czech Republic with syrup and fermented fruit. Linzer biol. Beitr. 40/1: 507-515.

Esin M.N., Ruchin A.B., Gavryushin D.I., Xi Y.Q., Dvořák L., Dvořáková K. 2023. Diptera species, new for the Republic of Mordovia, Russia. Nature Conservation Research. Vol. 8(2). P. 98–105.

Ewers, R.M., Didham, R.K. (2006). Continuous response functions for quantifying the strength of edge effects. Journal of applied ecology, 43(3), 527-536.

Ewers R.M., Didham R.K. Pervasive impact of large-scale edge effects on a beetle com-munity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2008. Т. 105. №. 14. С. 5426-5429.

Fletcher R.J., Ries L., Battin J., Chalfoun A.D. 2007. The role of habitat area and edge in fragmented landscapes: definitively distinct or inevitably intertwined? Canadian Jour-nal of Zoology. 85 (10): 1017-1030.

Gadelha, B. Q., Silva, A. B., Ferraz, A. C. P., & Aguiar, V. M. (2015). Mesembrinellinae (Diptera: Calliphoridae) to edge effects in the Tinguá Biological Reserve, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Biology, 75(4), 196–205.

Gaimari, S. D., Mathis, W. N. (2011). World catalog and conspectus on the family Odini-idae (Diptera: Schizophora). Myia. 12: 191-339.

Goethe, J.K.; Dorman, S.J.; Huseth, A.S. Local and landscape scale drivers of Euschistus servus and Lygus lineolaris in North Carolina small grain agroecosystems. Agric. For-est Entomol. 2021, 23, 441–451.

Gornostaev N.G., Ruchin A.B., Esin M.N., Kulikov A.M. 2022. Seasonal dynamics of fruit flies (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in forests of the European Russia. Insects. 13: 751.

Gornostaev NG, Ruchin AB, Esin MN, Lazebny OE, Kulikov AM. Vertical Distribution of Fruit Flies (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in Deciduous Forests in the Center of European Russia. Insects. 2023; 14(10):822.

Hagenlund, L.K. & Kvifte, G.M. 2015. Paradryomyza spinigera Ozerov, 1987 new to Nor-way, with records of some other little known Diptera from Finnmark (Diptera: Acar-tophthalmidae, Campichoetidae, Diastatidae, Dryomyzidae, and Micropezidae). Nor-wegian Journal of Entomology 62, 196–204.

Hernández-Ortiz, V., Dzul-Cauich, J.F., Madora, M., Coates R. Local Climate Conditions Shape the Seasonal Patterns of the Diptera Community in a Tropical Rainforest of the Americas. Neotrop Entomol 51, 499–513 (2022).

Hughes J.B. Daily G.C. Ehrlich P.R. 2000. Conservation of insect diversity: a habitat ap-proach. Conserv. Biol. 14: 1788–1797.

Jokimäki J., Huhta E., Itämies J., Rahko P. 1998. Distribution of arthropods in relation to forest patch size, edge, and stand characteristics. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 28(7): 1068-1072.

Kark, S., Van Rensburg, B. J. (2006). Ecotones: marginal or central areas of transition?. Israel Journal of Ecology and Evolution, 52(1), 29-53.

Koval, A.G., Guseva, O.G., Shpanev, A.M. Hoverflies (Diptera, Syrphidae) in Agroland-scapes of St. Petersburg and Leningrad Province. Entmol. Rev. 98, 702–708 (2018).

Krčmar S (2023) Diversity of flesh flies (Sarcophagidae, Sarcophaginae) of pond habitats in rural areas in the Croatian part of Baranja. ZooKeys 1159: 17–36.

Krivosheina, N.P. (1979) Systematics and biology of Palaearctic species of the family Odiniidae (Diptera) – entomophages and xylophilous insects. In: Pravdin F.N. (Ed.), Nasekomye-razrushiteli drevesiny i ikh entomofagi (Xylophagous Insects and their Entomophages). A.N. Severtsov Institute of Evolutionary Morphology and Ecology of Animals, Academy of Sciences of the U.S.S.R. Nauka Publishing, Moscow, pp. 130–157.

Krivosheina N.P., Krivosheina M.G. 2019. Saproxylic Diptera (Insecta) of the Lazovsky State Nature Reserve (Russia). Nature Conservation Research 4(3): 78–92.

Krivosheina N.P., Menzel F. 1998. The Palaearctic species of the genus Sylvicola Harris, 1776 (Diptera, Anisopodidae). Beiträge zur Entomologie 48: 201–217.

López-Rojas V.I., Torreblanca-Ramírez C., Padilla-Serrato J.G., Flores-Rodríguez P., Flo-res-Garza R. 2023. The bivalves (Mollusca) from Priority Marine Regions in the cen-tre-south of the Mexican Transitional Pacific, associated with the rocky intertidal zone. Nature Conservation Research. Vol. 8(4). P. 36–47.

MacBride-Stewart, S., O’Brien, L., Grant, A., Ayala, M., Finlay-Smits, S., Allen, W., Greenaway, A. (2023). Healing fragmentation of forest biosecurity networks: A con-ceptual and reflexive mapping analysis of postcolonial relations that matter in Aotea-roa New Zealand and Cymru| Wales. Knowledge Cultures, 11(1), 205-233.

MacGowan, I. 2015. A Review and Checklist of Swedish Lonchaeidae (Diptera). Ento-mologisk Tidskrift 136 (4): 165-172.

MacGowan I., Ruchin A.B. 2022. Two new species of Lonchaeidae (Diptera: Schizophora) from the Republic of Mordovia, Russia // Russian Entomol. J. Vol. 31. No. 1. P. 83–86. doi: 10.15298/rusentj.31.1.17

Maguire DY, Robert K, Brochu K, Larrivée M, Buddle CM, Wheeler TA (2014) Vertical stratification of beetles (Coleoptera) and flies (Diptera) in temperate forest canopies. Environmental Entomology 43: 9–17.

Magura, T.; Lövei, G.L. The permeability of natural versus anthropogenic forest edges modulates the abundance of ground beetles of different dispersal power and habitat af-finity. Diversity 2020a, 12, 320.

Manko, P., Demkova, L., Kohutova, M., Obona, J. (2018). Efficiency of traps in collecting selected Diptera families according to the used bait: Comparison of baits and mixtures in a field experiment. European Journal of Ecology, 4 (2), 92-99.

Mathis, W. N., Rung, A. (2011). World catalog and conspectus on the family Periscelididae (Diptera: Schizophora). Myia. 12: 341-377.

Mathis, W.N., Sueyoshi, M. 2011. World catalog and conspectus on the family Dryomyzi-dae (Diptera: Schizophora). Myia. 12: 207–233.

Matuszewski S., Mądra-Bielewicz A., 2021; Competition of insect decomposers over large vertebrate carrion: Necrodes beetles (Silphidae) vs. blow flies (Calliphoridae). Current Zoology, 68: zoab100.

McGeoch M.A., Gaston K.J. 2000. Edge effects on the prevalence and mortality factors of Phytomyza ilicis (Diptera, Agromyzidae) in a suburban woodland. Ecology Letters 3(1): 23-29.

Molthan, J. (1990). Species composition, community structure and seasonal abundance of hover flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) on field margin biotopes in the Hessian Ried. Mittei-lungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Allgemeine und Angewandte Entomologie, 7(4-6), 368-379.

Mudri-Stojnic, S., Andric, A., Jozan, Z., & Vujic, A. (2012). Pollinator diversity (Hyme-noptera and Diptera) in semi-natural habitats in Serbia during summer. Archives of biological sciences, 64(2), 777-786.

Murcia C (1995) Edge effects in fragmented forests: implications for conservation. Trends Ecol Evol 10: 58–62.

Nartshuk, E.P. Grass-fly larvae (Diptera, Chloropidae): Diversity, habitats, and feeding specializations. Entmol. Rev. 94, 514–525 (2014).

Oplanić, M.; Čehić, A.; Begić, M.; Franić, M. Education for sustainable agricultural devel-opment: Case study of Agricultural Secondary school Mate Balota in Poreč. J. Cent. Eur. Agric. 2021, 22, 226–239.

Ouin A., Sarthou J.P., Bouyjou B., Deconchat M., Lacombe J.P., Monteil C. 2006. The spe-cies-area relationship in the hoverfly (Diptera, Syrphidae) communities of forest fragments in southern France. Ecography 29: 183-190.

Palatov, D.M., Chertoprud, M.V. & Frolov, A.A. Fauna and types of soft-bottom macro-zoobenthic assemblages in watercourses of mountainous regions on the eastern Black Sea coast. Inland Water Biol 9, 150–159 (2016).

Papp, L. (1998). Life-habits of the Central European species of Periscelididae (Diptera). Folia entomologica hungarica, 59, 119-123.

Penariol, L.V., Madi-Ravazzi, L. Edge-interior differences in the species richness and abundance of drosophilids in a semideciduous forest fragment. SpringerPlus 2, 114 (2013).

Peltonen, M., Heliövaara, K., Väisänen, R. 1997. Forest insects and environmental varia-tion in stand edges. Silva Fennica 31(2): 129-141.

Preisler, J., & Roháček, J. (2012). New faunistic records of Heleomyzidae (Diptera) from the Czech Republic and Slovakia, and notes on the distribution of three rare Suillia species. Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales, 61(1), 85-90.

Rice K.B., Jones S.K., Morrison W., Leskey T.C. 2017. Spotted Wing Drosophila Prefer Low Hanging Fruit: Insights into Foraging Behavior and Management Strategies, Journal of Insect Behavior. 30: 645-661.

Rognes K. 1987. The taxonomy of the Pollenia rudis species‐group in the Holarctic Region (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Systematic Entomology 12(4): 475-502.

Roháček J. 2013. The fauna of Acalyptrate families Micropezidae, Psilidae, Clusiidae, Acartophthalmidae, Anthomyzidae, Aulacigastridae, Periscelididae and Asteiidae (Diptera) in the Gemer area (Central Slovakia): supplement 1. Čas. Slez. Muz. Opava (A). 62: 125-136.

Rotheray, G.E. (2019). Phytophagy and Mycophagy. In: Ecomorphology of Cyclorrhaphan Larvae (Diptera). Zoological Monographs, vol. 4. Springer, Cham.

Rotheray, G.E., Hancock, G., Hewitt, S., David Horsfield, Iain MacGowan, David Robert-son & Kenneth Watt The Biodiversity and Conservation of Saproxylic Diptera In Scot-land. Journal of Insect Conservation 5, 77–85 (2001).

Ruchin A.B. 2021. Seasonal dynamics and spatial distribution of lepidopterans in selected locations in Mordovia, Russia. Biodiversitas 22(5): 2569-2575. DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d220515

Ruchin A.B., Egorov L.V., Khapugin A.A., Vikhrev N.E., Esin M.N. 2020. The use of sim-ple crown traps for the insects collection // Nature Conservation Research. Vol. 5(1). P. 87–108.

Ruchin A.B., Egorov L.V., MacGowan I., Makarkin V.N., Antropov A.V., Gornostaev N.G., Khapugin A.A., Dvořák L., Esin M.N. 2021. Post-fire insect fauna explored by crown fermental traps in forests of the European Russia. Scientific Reports. 11: 21334.

Ruchin, A. B., Esin, M. N. (2021). Seasonal dynamics of Diptera in individual biotopes in the center of the European part of Russia. Biosystems Diversity, 29(4), 374-379.

Ruchin A.B., Khapugin A.A. 2019. Red data book invertebrates in a protected area of Eu-ropean Russia. Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 65(4), pp. 349–370.

Ruchin A.B., Kurmaeva D.K. 2010. On rare insects of Mordovia included in the Red Book of the Russian Federation. Entomological Review. V. 90. Is. 6. P. 712-717.

Scherber, C., Vockenhuber, E.A., Stark, A., Meyer H., Tscharntke T. Effects of tree and herb biodiversity on Diptera, a hyperdiverse insect order. Oecologia 174, 1387–1400 (2014).

Sorokina, V. S., Pont, A. C. (2011). Fanniidae and Muscidae (Insecta, Diptera) associated with burrows of the Altai Mountains Marmot (Marmota baibacina baibacina Kast-schenko, 1899) in Siberia, with the description of new species. Zootaxa, 3118(1), 31-44.

Ssymank A., Kearns C.A., Pape T., Thompson F.C. (2008) Pollinating Flies (Diptera): A major contribution to plant diversity and agricultural production, Biodiversity, 9:1-2, 86-89, DOI: 10.1080/14888386.2008.9712892

Stork, N. E. 1991. The composition of the arthropod fauna of Bornean lowland rain forest trees. J. Trop. Ecol. 7(2): 161-180.

Szpila, K., Mądra, A., Jarmusz, M., Matuszewski S. Flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) colonising large carcasses in Central Europe. Parasitol Res 114, 2341–2348 (2015).

Szwejda, J. (2003). Diptera occurring on vegetables in Poland. IOBC WPRS Bulletin, 26(3), 113-120.

Uchoa M.A., Pereira-Balbino V.L., Faccenda O. 2023. Ecotone effect on the fruit fly as-semblages (Diptera: Tephritidae) in natural and anthropized environments. Braz. J. Biol. 83: e273399.

von Tschirnhaus, M. 2008. 4.3.01. Acartophthalmidae, Borboropsidae, Chyromyidae, Mi-cropezidae, Odiniidae, Opetiidae, Periscelididae, Pseudopomyzidae, and Tanypezidae. Pp 65-97. In Ziegler, J. (ed.), Diptera Stelviana. A dipterological perspective on a changing alpine landscape. Results from a survey of the biodiversity of Diptera (Insec-ta) in the Stilfserjoch National Park (Italy). Volume 1. Stud. Dipt., Suppl. 16: 1-395.

Wagner, R., Barták, M., Borkent, A., Courtney, G., Goddeeris, B., Haenni, J. P., Knutson L., Pont A., Rotheray G.E., Rozkošný R., Sinclair B., Woodley N., Zatwarnicki T., Zwick, P. (2008). Global diversity of dipteran families (Insecta Diptera) in freshwater (excluding Simulidae, Culicidae, Chironomidae, Tipulidae and Tabanidae). Hydrobio-logia, 595, 489-519.

Xi Y.Q., Yang D., Yin X.M. The genus Phyllomyza Fallén from China, with descriptions of three new species (Diptera, Milichiidae). Zookeys. 2018. 760: 143-157. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.760.22595

Zhang, Z.-Q. (Ed.) Animal Biodiversity: An Outline of Higher-level Classification and Survey of Taxonomic Richness (Addenda 2013). Zootaxa, 2013. 3703, 1–82.




How to Cite

Esin, M. N. ., & Ruchin, A. B. . (2024). Edge effects on Diptera distribution in deciduous forests of the centre of European Russia. Journal of Wildlife and Biodiversity, 6(X), 16–37.



Original Article