A Review of Primate Research and Conservation in Sarawak, Malaysia


  • Tukiman Nur-Aizatul Animal Resource Science and Management, Faculty of Resource Science and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, 94300 Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia
  • Mohammad Noor-Faezah Animal Resource Science and Management, Faculty of Resource Science and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, 94300 Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia; Centre for Pre-University Studies, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, 94300 Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia
  • Tingga Roberta Chaya Tawie Centre for Pre-University Studies, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, 94300 Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia ;Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43000 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Mohamad Fhaizal Bukhori Centre for Pre-University Studies, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, 94300 Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia
  • Jayasilan Mohd-Azlan Institute of Biodiversity and Environmental Conservation, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, 94300 Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia
  • Azroie Denel Sarawak Forestry Corporation, Kota Sentosa, Sarawak, Malaysia
  • Badrul Munir Md-Zain Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43000 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Muhammad Abu Bakar Abdul-Latiff Environmental Management and Conservation Research Unit (eNCORe), Faculty of Applied Sciences and Technology (FAST), Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (Pagoh Campus), 84000, Muar, Johor, Malaysia
  • Abd Rahman Mohd-Ridwan Centre for Pre-University Studies, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, 94300 Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia




Sarawak primates, Primate research, Conservation, Threats, Endangered species


Sarawak is home to a diverse array of primate species in Malaysia, i.e., 14 species from five families. Over the years, many studies on primates’ behavior, ecology and conservation have been conducted in Sarawak. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of previous primate studies in Sarawak from 1960 to 2022 and discuss primates' threats, conservation status, and initiatives. Despite the vast number of these primate studies, the majority of them only focus on proboscis monkeys (n=24) and orangutans (n=21) and lack comprehensive studies that cover all primate species in Sarawak. Studies on ecology and natural history were the most prevalent for all Sarawak primate genera (n=51), accounting for more than half of publications. Thus, it advocates a more holistic approach to fill the knowledge gaps and meet conservation needs. Conservation efforts are urgently needed to protect primates currently threatened by deforestation, habitat fragmentation, hunting, and illegal trade. However, conservation efforts may be restrained by the limited information on primates in Sarawak. To preserve the primates in Sarawak, a robust protection strategy that synergizes the participation of government authorities, non-government organizations, and local communities needs to be developed.


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How to Cite

Nur-Aizatul, T. ., Noor-Faezah, M. ., Chaya Tawie, T. R. ., Bukhori, M. F. ., Mohd-Azlan, J. ., Denel, A. ., Md-Zain, B. M. ., Abdul-Latiff , M. A. B. ., & Mohd-Ridwan, A. R. . (2023). A Review of Primate Research and Conservation in Sarawak, Malaysia. Journal of Wildlife and Biodiversity, 7(supplementary issue), 69–95. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.10023073

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