Investigation of Campylobacter jejuni in microbiota of Galerida cristata, trapped in Southeast of Iran, Sistan


  • Saeed Salari Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zabol, Zabol, Sistan and Baluchistan, Iran
  • Mehdi Jahantigh Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zabol, Zabol, Sistan and Baluchistan, Iran
  • Mohammad Jahantigh Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zabol, Zabol, Sistan and Baluchistan, Iran



Iran, microorganism, PCR, wild animals


As a wild ground-foraging bird, crested lark (Galerida cristata) is widely distributed in the Sistan area, located in the North of Sistan and Baluchistan Province, Iran. Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) is known as a cause of acute diarrheal and Guillain-Barré syndrome in humans and can use the same wild birds as a carrier. The present study was aimed to determine if the target wild bird species can be regarded as a medium to carry C. jejuni or not. A total of 100 individual birds were trapped alive, and cloacal swab samples were collected from each animal. By amplifying Hyp and hip genes, we screened the presence of C. jejuni in the sampled specimens. The results indicated that generating an amplicon of 500 bp and 750 bp from control strain for Hyp and hip genes, but in all examined samples, no C. jejuni was detected. As a first microbiological investigation on a crested lark, our finding indicates that it likely plays no role in the epidemiology of infections caused by C. jejuni. Vast studies, with a variety of wild birds, and different geographical areas are proposed.


Abulreesh H.H., Goulder R., Scott G.W. 2007. Wild birds and human pathogens in the context of ringing and migration. Ringing and Migration23(4):193–200. DOI: 10.1080/03078698.2007.9674363

Ansari-Lari M., Hosseinzadeh S., Shekarforoush S.S., Abdollahi M., Berizi E. 2011. Prevalence and risk factors associated with Campylobacter infections in broiler flocks in Shiraz, southern Iran. International Journal of Food Microbiology144(3):475-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2010.11.003

Blaser M.J. 1997. Epidemiologic and clinical features of Campylobacter jejuni infections. Journal of Infectious Diseases 176(Supl. 2): S103–S105.

Divsalar G., Kaboosi H., Khoshbakht R., Shirzad-Aski H., Ghadikolaii F.P. 2019. Antimicrobial resistance, and molecular typing of Campylobacter jejuni isolates, separated from food-producing animals and diarrhea patients in Iran. Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 65:194-200. DOI: 10.1016/j.cimid.2019.06.001

Ehsannejad F., Sheikholmolooki A., Hassanzadeh M., Shojaei Kavan R.,Soltani M. 2015. Detection of cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) genes of Campylobacter jejuni and coli in fecal samples of pet birds in Iran. Iranian Journal of Veterinary Medicine9(1):49–56. DOI: 10.22059/ijvm.2015.53233

Fricker C.R., Metcalfe N. 1984. Campylobacters in wading birds (Charadrii): incidence, biotypes and isolation techniques. Zentralblatt für Bakteriologie, Mikrobiologie und Hygiene. Serie B, Umwelthygiene, Krankenhaushygiene, Arbeitshygiene, präventive Medizin. 179(5):469–475.

Fukuyama M., Kamimura T., Itoh T., Saito K., Takahashi M., Sakai S., Murata M., Kohzaki K.I., Hara M., Shimizu T., Tabuchi K. 1986. Distribution of Campylobacter jejuni in wild birds and serogroup of isolates by slide agglutination technique. Nihon juigaku zasshi. The Japanese journal of veterinary science 48(3):487–493. DOI: 10.1292/jvms1939. 48.487

Hamidian M., Sanaei M., Bolfion M., Dabiri H., Zali M.R., Walther-Rasmussen J. 2011. Prevalence of putative virulence markers in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from hospitalized children, raw chicken, and raw beef in Tehran, Iran. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 57(2):143-8. DOI: 10.1139/w10-089

Ito K., Kubokura Y., Kaneko K., Totake Y., Ogawa M. 1988. Occurrence of Campylobacter jejuni in free-living wild birds from Japan. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 24(3):467–470. DOI: 10.7589/0090-3558-24.3.467

Kapperud G., Rosef O. 1983. Avian wildlife reservoir of Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni, Yersinia spp., and Salmonella spp. in Norway. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 45(2):375–380.

Khoshbakht R., Tabatabaei M., Hosseinzadeh S., Shekarforoush S.S., Aski H.S. 2013. Distribution of nine virulence-associated genes in Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli isolated from broiler feces in Shiraz, Southern Iran. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease 10(9):764-70. DOI: 10.1089/fpd.2013.1489

Lévesque B., Brousseau P., Bernier F., Dewailly É., Joly J. 2000. Study of the bacterial content of ring-billed gull droppings in relation to recreational water quality. Water Research34(4):1089–1096. DOI: 10.1016/s0043-1354(99)00266-3

Linton D., Lawson A.J., Owen R.J., Stanley J. 1997. PCR detection, identification to species level, and fingerprinting of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli direct from diarrheic samples. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 35(10):2568–2572.

Luechtefeld N.A., Blaser M.J., Reller L.B., Wang W.L. 1980. Isolation of Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni from migratory waterfowl. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 12(3):406–408.

Megraud F. 1987. Isolation of Campylobacter spp. from pigeon feces by a combined enrichment-filtration technique. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 53(6):1394–1395.

Mohammadi S., Molashahi F., Sabaghzadeh A. 2017. Breeding study of Galerida cristata, Linnaeus, 1758 in Zahak, southeastern of Iran. Animal Environment8(4):77–82. [Persian]

Pacha R.E., Clark G.W., Williams E.A., Carter A.M. 1988. Migratory birds of central Washington as reservoirs of Campylobacter jejuni. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 34(1):80–82.

Raja S.S., Rao V.A., Babu R.N., Raja A., Abraham R.J.J., Thamizhannal M. 2017. Detection of Campylobacter jejuni in chicken meat by polymerase chain reaction. Indian Veterinary Journal 94(2):25–28.

Prince Milton A.A., Agarwal R.K., Priya G.B., Saminathan M., Aravind M., Reddy A., Athira C.K., Anjay Ramees T.P., Dhama K., Sharma A.K., Kumar A. 2017. Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in captive wildlife species of India. Iranian Journal of Veterinary Research 18(3):177–182.

Southern J.P., Smith R.M., Palmer S.R. 1990. Bird attack on milk bottles: possible mode of transmission of Campylobacter jejuni to man. Lancet336(8728):1425–1427.

Waldenstrom J., Broman T., Carlsson I., Hasselquist D., Achterberg R.P., Wagenaar J.A., Olsen B. 2002. Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter lari, and Campylobacter coli in different ecological guilds and taxa of migrating birds. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 68(12):5911–5917.

Whelan C.D., Monaghan P., Girdwood R.W., Fricker C.R. 1988. The significance of wild birds (Larus sp.) in the epidemiology of Campylobacter infections in humans. Epidemiology and Infection 101(2):259–267.




How to Cite

Salari, S., Jahantigh, M., & Jahantigh, M. (2020). Investigation of Campylobacter jejuni in microbiota of Galerida cristata, trapped in Southeast of Iran, Sistan. Journal of Wildlife and Biodiversity, 4(2), 28–33.