Adding a contribution to natural and environmental approach by Corporate social responsibility for the Turkish defense industry: A corporate framework for wildlife conservation in biodiversity hotspots of Turkey


  • Hançer Çakıroğlu Girne American University, Department of Business Management, Girne, TRNC via TURKEY
  • Yıldırım Oner Girne American University, Department of Business Management, Girne, TRNC via TURKEY



Business management, orientation, perception, integration, conservation management


It is important to prioritize natural and environmental issues in a balanced way with economic and social issues, when addressing the development progress of the Turkish Defense Industry, which has a high potential in the economy, with a socially inclusive and environmentally sustainable approach. Some approaches for a firm's responsibilities concerning society have typically excluded defense companies from their research, mainly on ideological grounds. On the contrary, the managers of defense companies have concerns that their companies imply to operate in socially responsible ways. Additionally, wildlife and biodiversity are well known that wildlife and biodiversity are under the direct and indirect impact of human activities. Current knowledge on biodiversity points out the requirement of further efforts and resources to increase the understanding and develop more effective conservation strategies. A framework for integration of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and wildlife conservation could increase the effort on this purpose, especially for less studied regions. This research aims to outline managers' characteristics and perceptions as decision-makers of CSR activities in the Turkish Defense Industry and propose a framework for integration between wildlife conservation and the Turkish Defense Industry's CSR. Results highlighted that demographic characteristics and company structure do not impact managers' CSR view as considerably as expected.


Abbot, W. F., & Monsen, R. J. (1979). On the Measurement of Corporate Social Responsibility: Self-Reported Disclosures as a Method of Measuring Corporate Social Involvement. Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 22 (No. 3), 501-515.

Alakavuklar, O.N., Kılıçaslan, S., & Öztürk, E.B. (2009). Türkiye‟de Hayırseverlikten Kurumsal Sosyal Sorumluluğa Geçiş: Bir Kurumsal Değişim Öyküsü. The Journal of Strategic Management Researches (JOSMR), Vol. 9 (2), 103-143.

Aupperle, K., Carroll, A., & Hatfield, J. (1985). An Empirical Examination of the Relationship between Corporate Social Responsibility and Profitability. The Academy of Management Journal, 28(2), 446-463.

Avşar, F. (2007). Doğrulayıcı Faktör Analizi ve Beck Depresyon Envanteri Üzerine Bir Uygulama. [Unpublished master’s thesis]. Yıldız Technical University.

Baker, M. (2005). Can companies that make products that kill be socially responsible? Business Respect 86. Retrieved from Story_ID=1492.

Balı, S., & Ci̇nel, M. (2011). Bir Rekabet Araci Olarak Kurumsal Sosyal Sorumluluk. ODÜ Journal of Social Sciences Research 2 (4), 45-60.

Baroth, A., & Mathur, V.B. (2019). Wildlife conservation through corporate social responsibility initiatives in India. Current Science, 117 (3), 405-411.

Bartol, K.M., & Martin, D.C. (1997). Management (Mcgraw-Hill Series in Management) (3rd ed.). Mcgraw-Hill College. (Original work published 1991).

Becan, C . (2013). Kurumsal Sosyal Sorumluluk Kavraminin Paydaş Teorisi Ve İletişim Yaklaşimi Açisindan Değerlendirilmesi: Bankalarin Basin Bültenlerine Yönelik Bir İçerik Analizi . Selçuk İletişim , 7 (1) , 16-35. Retrieved from

Bengil, E. (2020). Can opportunistic methodologies provide information on elasmobranchs? A case study from Seas around Turkey. Journal of Wildlife and Biodiversity, 4(Special issue), 68-77.

Bengil, F. (2019). Dogu Akdeniz’de Balinalar Yunuslar ve Muturlar [in Turkish]. Hiperlink Publishing, İstanbul.

Bhambri, A., & Sonnenfeld, J. (1988). Organization structure and corporate social performance: A field study in two contrasting industries. Academy of management journal, 31(3), 642-662.

Boran, T.G. (2011). Türkiye’den Uygulama Örnekleriyle Kurumsal Sosyal Sorumluluk. Beta Publications.

Bowen, H. R. (2013). Social responsibilities of the businessman (H. R. Bowen, Ed.). University of Iowa Press. (Original work published 1953).

Byrne, B. M. (2001). Structural Equation Modeling With AMOS, EQS, and LISREL: Comparative Approaches to Testing for the Factorial Validity of a Measuring Instrument. International Journal of Testing, 1(1), 55–86.

Byrne, E.F. (2007). Assessing arms makers' corporate social responsibility. Journal of Business Ethics 74, 201-217.

Can, A. (2018). SPSS ile bilimsel araştırma sürecinde nicel veri analizi. Pegem Publications.

Carroll, A.B. (1979). A three-dimensional conceptual model of corporate performance. Academy of Management Review, Vol. 4, 497–505.

Challis, P., & Challis, L. (2014). The Heart of Corporate Social Responsibility. Bookboon Books.

CSR Wire. (2000). Exxon Mobil strengthens commitment to tiger conservation; company has committed $9 million to tiger conservation save the tiger fund conservation grants announced.

Dinçer, M.A.M., & Özdemir, Y. (2013). Kurumsal Sosyal Sorumluluk Uygulamalari ve Eşbiçimlilik: On Büyük Türk Holdingi Üzerine Vaka Çalişmasi. Journal of Economics & Administrative Sciences 15(2). Retrieved from

Ghosh, S., & Mathur, V.B. (2020). The Deer that Rode a Car: Role of CSR in Natural Resource Conservation. In: Sharma R., Watve A., Pandey A. (eds). Corporate Biodiversity Management for Sustainable Growth. Environment & Policy, vol 59. Springer, Cham.

Hair, J., Babin, B., Money, A., & Samouel, P. (2005). Fundamentos de métodos de pesquisa em administração. Bookman Companhia Ed.

Hair, J.F., Black, W.C., Babin, B., & Anderson, R.E. (2010). Multivariate Data Analysis (7th ed.), Prentice-Hall.

Halpern, B.H. (2008). Corporate social responsibility orientation: An investigation of specific department of defense contractors. PhD Dissertation, 142 p. Capella University.

Halpern, B.H., & Snider, K.F. (2012). Products That Kill and Corporate Social Responsibility: The Case of U.S. Defense Firms. Armed Forces & Society 38(4): 604-624.

Helmstadter, G.C. (1964). Principles of psychological measurement. Appleton-Century-Crofts.

Hurst, J. W. (2004). The legitimacy of the business corporation in the law of the United States, 1780-1970. The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd.

Ibrahim, N.A., & Angelidis, J.P. (1994). Effect of board members gender on corporate social responsiveness orientation. Journal of Applied Business Research (JABR) 10(1), 35-40.

Johnson, C. N., Balmford, A., Brook, B. W., Buettel, J. C., Galetti, M., Guangchun, L., & Wilmshurst, J. M. (2017). Biodiversity losses and conservation responses in the Anthropocene. Science, 356(6335), 270–275.

Jöreskog, K.G., & Sörbom, D. (1993). LISREL 8: Structural equation modeling with the SIMPLIS command language. Scientific Software International.

Kramer, M., Kania, J., & McBreen, M. (2006). Game Changing CSR. Corporate Social Responsibility Initiative Working Paper No. 18, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University.

Küskü, F., & Bay, E., (2012). İsteğe Bağlı Kurumsal Sosyal Sorumluluk Faaliyetleri, Görünürde Hayırseverlik. Amme İdaresi Dergisi, 45(1), 51-75.

Macchiette, B., & Roy, A. (1994). Sensitive groups and social issues. Journal of Consumer Marketing.

Mavruk, S., Saygu, İ., & Bengil, F. (2020). Fishers ’ responses towards the banning white grouper fishery in Turkey. Journal of Wildlife and Biodiversity, 4(4), 50–57.

Nalbant, Z.E. (2005). İşletmelerde Sosyal Sorumluluk ve İş Ahlakı. Journal of Management and Economics, vol:12, issue:1. Retrieved from

Nunnally, J.C. (1978). Psychometric Theory. New York: McGraw Hill, 1978. 701p.

Pandey, A. (2020). Corporate Social Responsibility Role in Biodiversity Conservation: Policy Action and Good Governance. In: Sharma R., Watve A., Pandey A. (eds) Corporate Biodiversity Management for Sustainable Growth. Environment & Policy, vol 59. Springer, Cham.

Pelit, E., Keleş, Y., & Çakır, M. (2009). Otel İşletmelerinde Sosyal Sorumluluk Uygulamalarının Belirlenmesine Yönelik Bir Araştırma. Journal of Management and Economics, vol:16 (2). Retrieved from

Presidency of Defense Industries (2019). Turkish Defense Industry Product Catalogue 2019. Presidency of Defense Industries office.

Presidency of Defense Industries (2020). Performance Report 2020. Presidency of Defense Industries office. LangID=1

Ruíz, C. (2015). The armed forces and the current model of social responsibility. The Magazine of the Spanish Institute of Strategic Studies 6, 6-24.

Sarıkaya, M., & Akarca, Y. (2011). Kurumsal sosyal sorumlulukta ölçüm teknikleri. Denetişim (8): 60-67. Retrieved from

Smith, W., & Blackburn, R. (1988). Corporate social responsibility: A psychometric examination of a management instrument. In Proceedings of the southern management association, 293-295.

Tabachnick, B.G., & Fidell, L.S. (2013). Using Multivariate Statistics (6th ed.). Pearson Books.

Udoto, P. (2012). Wildlife as a lifeline to Kenya's economy: making memorable visitor experiences. In the George Wright Forum (Vol. 29, No. 1, pp. 51-58). George Wright Society.

Unal, V., & Kizilkaya, Z. (2019). A Long and Participatory Process towards Successful Fishery Management of Gökova Bay, Turkey. In C. C. Krueger, W. W. Taylor, & S. J. Youn (Eds.), From Catastrophe to Recovery: Stories of Fishery Management Success (pp. 509–532). American Fisheries Society

Waddock, S.A., & Graves, S.B. (1997). The corporate social performance. Strategic management journal, 8(4), 303-319.<303::AID-SMJ869>3.0.CO;2-G

Yavuzyılmaz, Ö. (2014). Türk Savunma Sanayiinde Teknoloji Tedarik Stratejilerini Belirlemeye Yönelik Bir Model Önerisi. [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Turkish Military Academy Defense Sciences Institute.




How to Cite

Çakıroğlu, H. ., & Oner , Y. (2021). Adding a contribution to natural and environmental approach by Corporate social responsibility for the Turkish defense industry: A corporate framework for wildlife conservation in biodiversity hotspots of Turkey. Journal of Wildlife and Biodiversity, 5(3), 52–67.