Plant species diversity, structure, and regeneration status of Dengago Mountain in Eastern Hararghe Zone, Ethiopia
Keywords:Lower and altitudes, Natural vegetation, Upper altitude
The study was conducted at Dengago Mountain in Eastern Ethiopia to identify and analyze species' diversity, population structure, and regeneration status along altitudinal gradients. A systematic sampling procedure was employed with 6 transect lines and 45 quadrats established along the transect lines. Data were collected on the tree, shrubs, climbers, and herbaceous plants along altitudinal gradients. The vegetation data were statistically analyzed in one-way ANOVA using R software (version 4.0.5). A total of 49 species within 23 families and 34 genera were identified of which 42.8% were shrubs, 40.8% trees, 10.2% climbers, and 6.1% tree/shrubs. Tiliaceae was the dominant and Lower Altitude had significantly higher plant density than MA and UA. On the other hand, Middle altitude had a significantly higher Shannon’s diversity index value and the Jaccard’s similarities index showed the highest species similarity between MA and UA. The diameter and height class distribution of the population exhibited an inverted J-shape and the regeneration status of the forest was in fair condition. The study identified the presence of anthropologic disturbances and suggest the conservation the of Dengego Mountain.
Abebe, A. F., Cai, T., Wale, M., Song, G., Fjeldså, J., & Lei, F. (2019). Factors determining species richness patterns of breeding birds along an elevational gradient in the Horn of Africa region. Ecology and Evolution, 9(17), 9609–9623.
Addi, Admassu, Soromessa, T., & Bareke, T. (2020). Floristic composition and vegetation community analysis of Gesha and Sayilem Forest in Kaffa Zone south western Ethiopia. Biodiversitas Journal of Biological Diversity, 21(7).
Addi, ADMASSU, Soromessa, T., & Bareke, T. (2020). Plant diversity and community analysis of Gesha and Sayilem Forest in Kaffa Zone, southwestern Ethiopia. Biodiversitas, 21(7), 2878–2888.
Ango, T. G., Hylander, K., & Börjeson, L. (2020). Processes of forest cover change since 1958 in the coffee-producing areas of Southwest Ethiopia. Land, 9(8), 278.
Atsbha, T., Desta, A. B., & Zewdu, T. (2019). Woody species diversity, population structure, and regeneration status in the Gra-Kahsu natural vegetation, southern Tigray of Ethiopia. Heliyon, 5(1), e01120.
Awas, T. (2007). Plant diversity in Western Ethiopia: ecology, ethnobotany and conservation.
Ayanaw Abunie, A., & Dalle, G. (2018). Woody species diversity, structure, and regeneration status of yemrehane kirstos church forest of lasta woreda, north wollo zone, amhara region, Ethiopia. International Journal of Forestry Research, 2018.
Aynekulu, E., Aerts, R., Denich, M., Negussie, A., Friis, I., Demissew, S., & Boehmer, H. J. (2016). Plant diversity and regeneration in a disturbed isolated dry Afromontane forest in northern Ethiopia. Folia Geobotanica, 51(2), 115–127.
Bekele-Tesemma, A., & Tengnäs, B. (2007). Useful trees and shrubs of Ethiopia: identification, propagation, and management for 17 agroclimatic zones. RELMA in ICRAF Project, World Agroforestry Centre, Eastern Africa Region~….
Belayneh, A., & Demissew, S. (2011). Diversity and population structure of woody species browsed by elephants in Babile Elephant Sanctuary, eastern Ethiopia: an implication for conservation. Ethiopian E-Journal for Research and Innovation Foresight, 3(1), 20–32.
Bessie, S., Beyene, F., Hundie, B., Goshu, D., & Mulatu, Y. (2016). Land use/land cover change and its effects on bamboo forest in benishangul gumuz region, Ethiopia. International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy, 5(1), 1–11.
Birhanu, L., Bekele, T., Tesfaw, B., & Demissew, S. (2021). Relationships between topographic factors, soil and plant communities in a dry Afromontane forest patches of Northwestern Ethiopia. PloS One, 16(3), e0247966.
Bogale, T., Datiko, D., Belachew, S., & others. (2017). Structure and natural regeneration status of woody plants of berbere afromontane moist forest, bale zone, South East Ethiopia; implication to biodiversity conservation. Open Journal of Forestry, 7(03), 352.
Bora, Z., Xu, X., Angassa, A., Wang, Y., & Zhao, Y. (2020). Do Herbaceous Species Functional Groups Have a Uniform Pattern along an Elevation Gradient? The Case of a Semi-Arid Savanna Grasslands in Southern Ethiopia. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(8), 2817.
Bruun, H. H., Moen, J., Virtanen, R., Grytnes, J.-A., Oksanen, L., & Angerbjörn, A. (2006). Effects of altitude and topography on species richness of vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens in alpine communities. Journal of Vegetation Science, 17(1), 37–46.
Bultum, L. E., Woyessa, A. M., & Lee, D. (2019). ETM-DB: integrated Ethiopian traditional herbal medicine and phytochemicals database. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 19(1), 1–11.
Cavalcanti, E. A. H., & Larrazábal, M. E. L. de. (2004). Macrozooplâncton da Zona Econômica Exclusiva do Nordeste do Brasil (segunda expedição oceanográfica-REVIZEE/NE II) com ênfase em Copepoda (Crustacea). Revista Brasileira de Zoologia, 21, 467–475.
Chidumayo, E. N., & others. (1997). Miombo ecology and management: an introduction. Intermediate Technology.
Cirimwami, L., Doumenge, C., Kahindo, J.-M., & Amani, C. (2019). The effect of elevation on species richness in tropical forests depends on the considered lifeform: results from an East African mountain forest. Tropical Ecology, 60(4), 473–484.
Cowling, R., & Kerley, G. I. H. (2002). Impacts of elephants on the flora and vegetation of subtropical thicket in the Eastern Cape. Elephant Conservation and Management in the Eastern Cape. Workshop Proceedings, Terrestrial Ecological Research Unit. Report, 35, 55–72.
Dereje, D. (2006). Floristic composition and ecological study of Bibita forest (Gura Ferda), Southwest Ethiopia. Addis Ababa University.
Desalegn, W., & Beierkuhnlein, C. (2010). Plant species and growth form richness along altitudinal gradients in the southwest Ethiopian highlands. Journal of Vegetation Science, 21(4), 617–626.
Didita, M., Nemomissa, S., & Gole, T. W. (2010). Floristic and structural analysis of the woodland vegetation around Dello Menna, Southeast Ethiopia. Journal of Forestry Research, 21(4), 395–408.
Elzinga, C. L., & Salzer, D. W. (1998). Measuring & monitoring plant populations. US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management.
Fajardo, A. (2018). Insights into intraspecific wood density variation and its relationship to growth, height and elevation in a treeline species. Plant Biology, 20(3), 456–464.
Fenetahun, Y., Yong-dong, W., & others. (2020). Assessment of impact of ecological elevation on grass species diversity in Yabello Rangeland, Southern Ethiopia. International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation, 12(2), 118–127.
Gebreegziabher, Z. (2007). Household fuel consumption and resource use in rural-urban Ethiopia. Wageningen University and Research.
Gebrewahid, Y., & Abrehe, S. (2019). Biodiversity conservation through indigenous agricultural practices: Woody species composition, density and diversity along an altitudinal gradient of Northern Ethiopia. Cogent Food & Agriculture, 5(1), 1700744.
Getaneh, B. (2007). Floristic composition and structure in Beschillo and Abay (Blue Nile) riverine vegetation. Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.
Gizachew, G. T. . (2021). Spatial-temporal and factors influencing the distribution of biodiversity: A Review. Scientific Reports in Life Sciences, 2(4), 1–19. https://doi.org/10.22034/srls.2021.247920
Grytnes, J. A., & Vetaas, O. R. (2002). Species richness and altitude: a comparison between null models and interpolated plant species richness along the Himalayan altitudinal gradient, Nepal. The American Naturalist, 159(3), 294–304.
Henle, K., Davies, K. F., Kleyer, M., Margules, C., & Settele, J. (2004). Predictors of species sensitivity to fragmentation. Biodiversity & Conservation, 13(1), 207–251.
Jha, P. K. (1997). Environment plant resources and quantities estimation methods for vegetation analysis. Ethnobotany for Conservation and Community Development.
Kebede, M., Kanninen, M., Yirdaw, E., & Lemenih, M. (2013). Vegetation structural characteristics and topographic factors in the remnant moist Afromontane forest of Wondo Genet, south central Ethiopia. Journal of Forestry Research, 24(3), 419–430.
Kent, M., & Coker, P. (1992a). Vegetation Description and Analysis--Belhaven Press. London.
Kent, M., & Coker, P. (1992b). Vegetation Description and Analysis Belhave press London pp. 363.
Khaine, I., Woo, S. Y., Kwak, M., Lee, S. H., Je, S. M., You, H., Lee, T., Jang, J., Lee, H. K., Cheng, H. C., & others. (2018). Factors affecting natural regeneration of tropical forests across a precipitation gradient in Myanmar. Forests, 9(3), 143.
Klanderud, K., & Birks, H. J. B. (2003). Recent increases in species richness and shifts in altitudinal distributions of Norwegian mountain plants. The Holocene, 13(1), 1–6.
Kull, C. A., Shackleton, C. M., Cunningham, P. J., Ducatillon, C., Dufour-Dror, J.-M., Esler, K. J., Friday, J. B., Gouveia, A. C., Griffin, A. R., Marchante, E., & others. (2011). Adoption, use and perception of Australian acacias around the world. Diversity and Distributions, 17(5), 822–836.
Lahiri, S., & Dash, S. S. (2021). COMMUNITY STRUCTURE AND REGENERATION STATUS OF TREE SPECIES IN KYONGNOSLA ALPINE SANCTUARY, EASTERN HIMALAYA, INDIA. Indonesian Journal of Forestry Research, 8(2), 241–257.
Lemessa, D., & Teka, Y. (2017). Patterns of the diversity of characteristic species across vegetation ecosystems of Ethiopia. Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, 2(3), 34.
Magarik, Y. A. S., Roman, L. A., & Henning, J. G. (2020). How should we measure the DBH of multi-stemmed urban trees? Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 47, 126481.
Malik, Z. A., & Bhatt, A. B. (2016). Regeneration status of tree species and survival of their seedlings in Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary and its adjoining areas in Western Himalaya, India. Tropical Ecology, 57(4), 677–690.
Maua, J. O., MugatsiaTsingalia, H., Cheboiwo, J., & Odee, D. (2020). Population structure and regeneration status of woody species in a remnant tropical forest: A case study of South Nandi forest, Kenya. Global Ecology and Conservation, 21, e00820.
Mbuya, L. P., Msanga, H. P., Ruffo, C. K., Birnie, A., & Tengnas, B. O. (1994). Useful trees and shrubs for Tanzania. SIDA (Swedish Intern. Develop. Auth.), Nairobi, Kenya, 542p.
McKinney, M. L. (2002). Urbanization, Biodiversity, and ConservationThe impacts of urbanization on native species are poorly studied, but educating a highly urbanized human population about these impacts can greatly improve species conservation in all ecosystems. BioScience, 52(10), 883–890.
Melese, S. M. (2016). Effect of land use land cover changes on the forest resources of Ethiopia. International Journal of Natural Resource Ecology and Management, 1(2), 51.
Meshesha, D. T., Tsunekawa, A., & Tsubo, M. (2012). Continuing land degradation: cause--effect in Ethiopia’s Central Rift Valley. Land Degradation & Development, 23(2), 130–143.
Midolo, G., De Frenne, P., Hölzel, N., & Wellstein, C. (2019). Global patterns of intraspecific leaf trait responses to elevation. Global Change Biology, 25(7), 2485–2498.
Muluneh, M. G., Feyissa, M. T., & Wolde, T. M. (2021). Effect of forest fragmentation and disturbance on diversity and structure of woody species in dry Afromontane forests of northern Ethiopia. Biodiversity and Conservation, 30(6), 1753–1779.
Negash, M., & Starr, M. (2013). Litterfall production and associated carbon and nitrogen fluxes of seven woody species grown in indigenous agroforestry systems in the south-eastern Rift Valley escarpment of Ethiopia. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 97(1), 29–41.
Negese Guluma, T. (2020). WOODY SPECIES DIVERSITY, REGENERATION STATUS AND CARBON STOCK ALONG AN ELEVATION GRADIENT IN FURI FOREST, CENTRAL ETHIOPIA. Haramaya university.
Nord-Larsen, T., & Cao, Q. V. (2006). A diameter distribution model for even-aged beech in Denmark. Forest Ecology and Management, 231(1–3), 218–225.
Oommen, M. A., & Shanker, K. (2005). Elevational species richness patterns emerge from multiple local mechanisms in Himalayan woody plants. Ecology, 86(11), 3039–3047.
Paul, A., Khan, M. L., & Das, A. K. (2019). Population structure and regeneration status of rhododendrons in temperate mixed broad-leaved forests of western Arunachal Pradesh, India. Geology, Ecology, and Landscapes, 3(3), 168–186.
Pouteau, R., Meyer, J.-Y., Blanchard, P., Nitta, J. H., Terorotua, M., & Taputuarai, R. (2016). Fern species richness and abundance are indicators of climate change on high-elevation islands: evidence from an elevational gradient on Tahiti (French Polynesia). Climatic Change, 138(1), 143–156.
Pradhan, A., Ormsby, A., & Behera, N. (2019). Diversity, population structure, and regeneration potential of tree species in five sacred forests of western Odisha, India. Ecoscience, 26(1), 85–97.
Rad, J. E., Manthey, M., & Mataji, A. (2009). Comparison of plant species diversity with different plant communities in deciduous forests. International Journal of Environmental Science & Technology, 6(3), 389–394.
Rahbek, C. (1995). The elevational gradient of species richness: a uniform pattern? Ecography, 200–205.
Rahbek, C. (1997). The relationship among area, elevation, and regional species richness in neotropical birds. The American Naturalist, 149(5), 875–902.
Rao, P., Barik, S. K., Pandey, H. N., & Tripathi, R. S. (1990). Community composition and tree population structure in a sub-tropical broad-leaved forest along a disturbance gradient. Vegetatio, 88(2), 151–162.
Rossiter, J., Wondie Minale, M., Andarge, W., & Twomlow, S. (2017). A communities Eden--grazing Exclosure success in Ethiopia. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability, 15(5), 514–526.
Sebsebe, D. (1997). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea volume 6 The National Herbarium. Biology Department, Science Faculty, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia, and Department of Systematic Botany, Uppsala University, Sweden.
Senbeta, F., & Teketay, D. (2003). Diversity, community types and population structure of woody plants in Kimphee forest, a unique nature reserve in southern Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Biological Sciences, 2(2), 169–187.
Shiferaw, A., & Singh, K. L. (2011). Evaluating the land use and land cover dynamics in Borena Woreda South Wollo Highlands, Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Business and Economics (The), 2(1).
Singh, P. P., Chakraborty, T., Dermann, A., Dermann, F., Adhikari, D., Gurung, P. B., Barik, S. K., Bauhus, J., Fassnacht, F. E., Dey, D. C., & others. (2020). Assessing restoration potential of fragmented and degraded Fagaceae forests in Meghalaya, North-East India. Forests, 11(9), 1008.
Team, R. C. (2013). 2015. R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing.
Tegegne, S., & WORKINEH, B. (2017). Vegetative structure, floristic composition and natural regeneration of a species in Ylat Forest, Meket Woreda, Northeastern Ethiopia. Asian Journal of Forestry, 1(1), 40–53.
Tessema, Z. K., de Boer, W. F., Baars, R. M. T., & Prins, H. H. T. (2012). Influence of grazing on soil seed banks determines the restoration potential of aboveground vegetation in a semi-arid savanna of Ethiopia. Biotropica, 44(2), 211–219.
Tsegaye, B. (2019). Effect of land use and land cover changes on soil erosion in Ethiopia. International Journal of Agricultural Science and Food Technology, 5(1), 26–34.
Wang, G., Zhou, G., Yang, L., & Li, Z. (2003). Distribution, species diversity and life-form spectra of plant communities along an altitudinal gradient in the northern slopes of Qilianshan Mountains, Gansu, China. Plant Ecology, 165(2), 169–181.
Wassie, A., Sterck, F. J., & Bongers, F. (2010). Species and structural diversity of church forests in a fragmented Ethiopian Highland landscape. Journal of Vegetation Science, 21(5), 938–948.
Yilma, G., & Derero, A. (2020). Carbon stock and woody species diversity patterns in church forests along church age gradient in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Urban Ecosystems, 23(5), 971–983.
Yirdaw, E. (2001). Diversity of naturally-regenerated native woody species in forest plantations in the Ethiopian highlands. New Forests, 22(3), 159–177.
Zegeye, H., Teketay, D., & Kelbessa, E. (2006). Diversity, regeneration status and socio-economic importance of the vegetation in the islands of Lake Ziway, south-central Ethiopia. Flora-Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants, 201(6), 483–498.
How to Cite
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.