Forthcoming

European bison (Bison bonasus Linnaeus, 1758) in Bulgaria: fossil and historical records, distribution, and disappearance

Authors

  • Zlatozar Boev National Museum of Natural History Bulgarian Academy of Sciences 1, Blvd. Tsar Osvoboditel, 1000 Sofia, Bulgaria

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6849950

Keywords:

History of mammals in Bulgaria, Quaternary mammals, Balkan fossil fauna, Large bovines of Europe

Abstract

An analysis of the past geographical, altitudinal and chronological distribution of the European bison remains in Bulgaria is given. The Paper summarizes all scattered data published in the last 36 years on the distribution of the species. Data of 18 fossil and subfossil localities (Late Pleistocene to 17th c. AD) from 15 out of 28 provinces in the country are presented. The fossil/subfossil record in Bulgaria proves the wide distribution of the wisent in the lowland, plain, and lower hilly landscapes in Bulgaria. Most data originate from prehistoric, ancient, and medieval settlements. The wisent was distributed mainly in the plains in places up to 300 m a. s. l., where are located over 70 percent of the known sites, although it was found in the mountains at 1080 m. a. s. l. The species survived in the country until the 16th -17th c. AD, i.e. seven centuries longer than known so far.

References

Boev Z. (In press). Alpine ibex (Capra ibex Linnaeus, 1758) in Bulgaria – fossil record, distribution and disappearance. Bulletin of the Natural History Museum – Plovdiv.

Boev Z. 2014. Animal remains of the Late Antiquity settlement near Dyakovo Village (Kyustendil Region (SW Bulgaria). ZooNotes, 65: 1–7.

Boev Z. 2022. Animal remains of the Late Antiquity settlement (3rd-6th century A. D.) near Shipot village (Vidin Region, NW Bulgaria). Bull. Nat. Hist. Mus. – Plovdiv, 7: 5-11.

Gromov I., Baranova G. 1981. Catalogue of Mammals of the Soviet Union (Pliocene–Recent). Nauka, Leningrad, 456 pp (in Russian).

Ivanov S. & Vasilev V. 1975. Studies of the animal bone material of the prehistoric settlement mound near Golyamo Delchevo. In: Todorova H., Ivanov St., Vasilev V., Hopff M., Kwitta H., Koll G. (Eds). Settlement mound near Golyamo Delchevo. Razkopki i prouchvaniya, 5: 245–302 (In Bulgarian).

Komitov E. 2016. The Wisent (Bison bonasus L.) in Bulgaria. Forest Science, 1–2: 117–128. (In Bulgarian, English summary).

Neov, B., Spassov, N., Hristova, L., Hristov, P. & Radoslavov, G. 2021. New data on the evolutionary history of the European bison (Bison bonasus) based on subfossil remains from Southeastern Europe. Ecology and Evolution, DOI: 10.1002/ece3.7241

Nobis G. & Ninov L. 2002. Zur Fauna der prahistorischen Siedlung Durankulak, Bez. Tolbuchin (NO-Bulgarien). II. Die Kupferzeit. In: Die Tierwelt Nordost-Bulgariens vom Neolithik um bis zur Kupferzeit anhand archaologischer grabungen in Durankulak (bez. Tolbuchin), Podgorica und vom tell Targoviste. Bonner zoologische Monographien, 51: 29–59.

Pererva V. I. 1992. The return of the wisent. Kolos Publishing House. Moscow. 208 pp. (In Russian).

Petkov P. 1930. Today’s and former wisents. Lovets, 10: 154–157 (In Bulgarian).

Plumb G., Kowalczyk R. & Hernandez-Blanco J.-A. 2020. Bison bonasus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Speciesq 2020: e.T2814A45156279. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-3.RLTS.T2814A45156279.en

Ribarov G. 1991. La faune de Cabyle (I-ere millénaire av. n. ère – VI s. de n. ère) d’apres les restes d’animaux sauvages et domestiques. In: Velkov V., (Ed.) Kabile, Vol. 2. Publishing House of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, 156-167. (In Bulgarian, Russian and French summaries).

Ribarov G. 2021. Demestic and wild animals of the medieval fortress Rusokastro, Burgas Region. Bulletin of the Burgas Museum, 7: 290–311. (In Bulgarian, English summary).

Sokolov V. E. 1979. European Bison. Morphology, Systematics, Evolution, Ecology. Nauka Publishing House, Moscow. 503 pp. (In Russian, English summary).

Spassov N. & Iliev N. 1986. Bone remains of wisent (Bison bonasus L.) in the medieval settlement near Garvan village, Silistra District (new investigations). In: Vazharova Zh., (Ed.). The medieval settlement near Garvan village, Silistra District, 6th-11th c. AD. Sofia, Publishing House of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 68.

Spassov N. & Stoychev T. 2003. On the origin of the Wisent, Bison bonasus (Linnaeus, 1758). Presence of the Wisent in the Upper Palaeolithic rock art of Eurasia. In: Advances in Paleontology “Hent to Pantha”, papers in honour of C. Radulescu and P.M. Samson. Institute of Speleology. Bucharest, 125–130.

Spassov N. 1992. Skeletal morphology, ecology and competition of the Aurochs and European bison in the Holocene of Europe. In: Proceedings of the Symposium “Ungulates 91”, Toulouse 2-6 September 1991. IRGM - I.N.R.A. Toulouse, 57–61.

Spassov N. 2016. On the origin of Wisent, again. Historia naturalis bulgarica, 23: 207–209.

Spassov N., Iliev N. & Boev Z. 2001. Animal remains from the Eneolithic site near the village of Dolnoslav, Plovdiv District, South Bulgaria. Historia naturalis bulgarica, 13: 159–179. (In Bulgarian, English summary).

Spassov N. & Popov V. 2007. History of the formation of the Bulgarian mammalian fauna. In: Popov, Spassov N., Ivanova T., Mihova B. & Georgiev K., Eds. Mammals Important for Conservation in Bulgaria, Dutch Mammal Society VZZ, Sofia, 31-47. (in Bulgarian).

Stoytchev T. & Spassov N. 2003. The Musk-Ox in the Bison’s shadow of West European Upper Palaeolithic rock art. Theoretical and Applied Karstology. Bucharest. 16, 57–66.

van Loenen A., Hofman-Kamińska E., Mitchell K. J., Llamas B., Bocherens H., Soubrier J., Heiniger, H., Pacher, M., Makowiecki, D., Piličiauskiene, G., Drucker, D., Kowalczyk, R. & Cooper A. 2018. Untangling the Evolutionary History of European Bison (Bison bonasus). http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/467951

Vasilev V. 1981. Second finding of wisent (Bison bonasus L.) in Bulgaria with a contribution towards the question of the osteological differences between the wisent and the cattle. Interdisciplinary Studues, 7–8: 89–97. (In Bulgarian).

Vasilev V. 1985. Investigation of the fauna from the settlement hill Ovcharovo. Interdisciplinary Studies, 13: 1–200 (In Bulgarian, English summary).

Vasilev V. 1989. Animal husbandry and the hunt in the life of the population of the medieval settlement near Durankulak. In: Todorova H., Ed. Durankulak. Sofia: Publ. House of BAS, 223–242. (In Bulgarian).

Żabinski J. 1947. Walka o żubra. Panstwowe Zaklady Wydawnictw Szkolnych. Warszawa. 59 pp. (In Polish)

Zablotskiy M. A. 1968. Wisent and its recovery in the USSR and abroad. Zoological Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. Leningrad State University. Serpuhov, 43 pp. (In Russian).

Downloads

Published

2022-07-17

How to Cite

Boev, Z. (2022). European bison (Bison bonasus Linnaeus, 1758) in Bulgaria: fossil and historical records, distribution, and disappearance. Journal of Wildlife and Biodiversity, 6(X). https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6849950

Issue

Section

Original Article