Conserving Big Cats In Captivity: Management practices used by National Zoological Park, New Delhi, India
Keywords:Conservation, Zoo, Bengal tiger, Asiatic lion, Common leopard
The National Zoological Park, New Delhi is one of the prominent zoos housing large numbers of big cats. Zoos with time have been evolved as a prime institution that helps in the conservation of many wild animals but in the captive environment, the conditions are different in comparison to the wild. In the present study, the big cats i.e., Bengal tiger, Asiatic lion, and Common leopard housed at the National Zoological Park, New Delhi have been chosen. The captive environment provided to these animals enclosure attributes, enrichment, upkeep, healthcare, population trend, breeding management, etc. has been reviewed. The data has been collected for every enclosure and analyzed as per the guidelines, norms, and species requirements. Besides, the population trend of these species in the zoo has also been analyzed. The results so obtained indicate that various management efforts are still required for conserving the species in captivity. Further, the population trend also depicts a more death trend than a birth trend in the case of big cats species which may be due to various reasons. The study, therefore, highlights that a more intensive species-specific captive management plan for the conservation of big cats may be formulated so that the main motive of zoos i.e., conservation and welfare of animals in captivity is being achieved successfully.
Ballou, J., Lees, C., Faust, L., Long, S., Lynch, C., Bingaman, L., & Foose, T. J. (2010). Demographic and genetic management of captive populations. Wild Mammals in Captivity: Principles and Techniques for Zoo Management. 219-252.
Bashaw, M., B, M., Marr, M., & Maple, T. (2003). To hunt or not to hunt? A feeding enrichment experiment with captive large felids. Zoo Biology. 22. 189- 198. 10.1002/zoo.10065.
Courtenay, J., & Santow, G. (1989). Mortality of Wild and captive Chimpanzees. Folia Primatol. 52: 167-177.
Hediger, H. (1950). Wild Animals in Captivity. London Butterworths. Scientific Publications.
Hughes, B.O. & Duncan, I.J.H. (1988). The notion of ethological ‘need’, models of motivation and animal welfare. Animal Behaviour. 36 (6):1696-1707.
Karstad, L., & Sileo, L. (1971). Cause of death of captive waterfowl in the Kortright Waterfowl Park. 1967-1971. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 7:236-241.
National Zoo Policy (1998). Central Zoo Authority.
Recognition of Zoo Rules (2009). http://cza.nic.in/page/en/recognition-of-zoo-rules-2009.
Shepherdson, O.J., Carlstead, K., Mellen, J.D., & Seidenslicker, J. (1993). Influence of Food Presentation on the Behaviour of Small Cats in Confined Environments. Zoo Biology 12: 203-216.
Das. A., Saini, M., Dutta, N., Sharma, K., Saha, S.K., Das, B.C., Swarup, D., & Sharma, A.K. (2013). Standardization of Animal Diet in Indian Zoos. Central Zoo Authority, New Delhi and Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar. Printing Palace Press, Bareilly.
Swarup, D., Das, A., Saini, M., Kumar, P., Sharma, A.K., & Pal, A. (2009) Standards, Guidelines and Protocol on Disease Diagnosis and Cure of Wild Animals in Indian Zoos. Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar and Central Zoo Authority, New Delhi. Anoopam Press, Bareilly.
Vaz, J., Narayan, E. J., Kumar, R. D., Thenmozhi, K., Thiyagesan, K., & Baskaran, N. (2017). Prevalence and determinants of stereotypic behaviours and physiological stress among tigers and leopards in Indian zoos. PloS one, 12(4), e0174711.
Wildlife Institute of India. (2018). National Studbook of Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica) IV Edition. Published as part of Central Zoo Authority sponsored project to Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun. Technical Report TR-2018/33. Pages: 317.
Wildlife Institute of India. (2018). National Studbook of Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) III Edition, Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun and Central Zoo Authority, New Delhi. 1-121.
Zoos In India: Legislation, Policy, Guidelines and Strategy. (2014). Central Zoo Authority.
Zoos, W. A. O., & Conservation, A. U. F. (2005). Building a future for wildlife: the world zoo and aquarium conservation strategy: WAZA Executive Office.
How to Cite
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.